Emerg Med J 20:75-78 doi:10.1136/emj.20.1.75
  • Prehospital care

Interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and psychological distress in emergency ambulance personnel: a review of the literature

  1. A Smith,
  2. K Roberts
  1. Pre-hospital Emergency Research Unit (PERU), Lansdowne Hospital, Cardiff, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Katherine Roberts, Pre-hospital Emergency Research Unit, Lansdowne Hospital, Cardiff CF11 8UL, UK; ks.roberts{at}


    A literature review was carried out to establish the extent of the literature on interventions for psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in emergency ambulance personnel. A total of 292 articles were identified. Of these, 10 were relevant to this review. The primary intervention used with this population was critical incident stress debriefing, although there was some debate in the literature about the effectiveness of this intervention and the quality of the research conducted. More high quality research is needed on critical incident stress debriefing before being confident of its effectiveness.


    • Funding: The Wales Office for Research and Development for Health and Social Care

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