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Emerg Med J 21:e3 doi:10.1136/emj.2003.008870
  • Electronic pages

Value of serum prolactin in the management of syncope

  1. S Ahmad1,
  2. M W Beckett2
  1. 1Paediatric Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi
  2. 2Accident and Emergency Department, West Middlesex University Hospital, Isleworth, Twickenham, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr M Beckett
 Accident and Emergency Department, West Middlesex University Hospital, Isleworth, Twickenham TW7 6AF, UK; djshaweaol.com
  • Accepted 25 June 2003

Abstract

Objective: A meta-analysis of studies of the usefulness of raised serum prolactin in diagnosing generalised tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in patients presenting to the accident and emergency (A&E) department after a single episode of syncope.

Methods: A three part question was defined. Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies. Studies were evaluated for eligibility and quality and data extracted to calculate sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), and likelihood ratios (LR).

Results: Of 13 relevant studies only three met the criteria for evaluation. If a serum prolactin concentration is greater than three times the baseline when taken within one hour of syncope, then in the absence of test “modifiers”: (1) the patient is nine times more likely to have suffered a GTCS as compared with a pseudoseizure positive LR = 8.92 (95% CI (1.31 to 60.91)), SN = 0.62 (95% CI (0.40 to 0.83)), SP = 0.89 (95% CI (0.60 to 0.98)) and (2) five times more likely to have suffered a GTCS as compared with non-convulsive syncope positive LR 4.60 (95% CI (1.25 to 16.90)), SN = 0.71 (95% CI (0.49 to 0.87)), SP = 0.85 (95% CI (0.55 to 0.98)).

Conclusion: A positive test result is highly predictive of a GTCS, however a negative test result does not necessarily exclude a seizure. Serum prolactin should be measured in patients presenting to the A&E department within an hour of a syncopal episode, unless the cause is immediately obvious.

Footnotes

  • Funding: none.

  • Competing interests: none declared.


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Among patients with minor TBI (GCS 13-15) getting CT scans ≥ 24 hours after injury, what proportion have a traumatic finding?

Results

0.5% - 43% response rate
3% - 41% response rate
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Related original article: PCT head imaging in patients with head injury who present after 24 h of injury: a retrospective cohort study

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