Emerg Med J 30:388-392 doi:10.1136/emermed-2012-201274
  • Original article

A review of Ghana's 2009–2013 integrated strategic response plan for pandemic influenza: illustrative study of the perceived adequacy of preparedness for the pandemic influenza of sub-Sahara Africa

  1. Anthony Hanebe Godi5
  1. 1Department of Biological, Environmental & Occupational Health Science, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra
  2. 2Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra
  3. 3School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra
  4. 4African Association of Public Health Schools
  5. 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ishmael D Norman, Department of Biological, Environmental & Occupational Health Science, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra; ishmael_norman{at}
  1. Contributors IN did the primary research and drafting. MSKA did the review and corrections. FNB took part in the discussions leading to this topic selection and generation of the tables used in this paper. AG revised the tables after the first submission.

  • Accepted 6 May 2012
  • Published Online First 26 July 2012


Objectives To review the National Integrated Strategic Plan for Pandemic Influenza for 2009–2013 and assess whether it is in congruence with the nation's emergency preparedness status.

Method The authors examined the National Plan ‘as is’ and evaluated it against the ‘State and Local Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist’ of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The authors matched the activities in the National Plan apropos the national emergency response capabilities. From the legal framework, published studies and other grey literature on the thematic areas of the Plan, the authors developed key items found in response programmes and drew a 5-point Likert-type scale for assessment. The authors analysed the results in relation to WHO's framework for hospital emergency preparedness, and conducted two-sample non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann–Whitney) tests.

Results/discussion The result showed that Ghana's health emergency preparedness is in disarray. About 75% of the health facilities lack emergency preparedness plans, surge capacity planning, triage for mass event and mutual aid agreements.

Conclusions The authors concluded that the Plan is incongruent with Ghana's public health emergency preparedness. The evaluation is important for Ghana and the subregion.


  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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Among patients with minor TBI (GCS 13-15) getting CT scans ≥ 24 hours after injury, what proportion have a traumatic finding?


0.5% - 43% response rate
3% - 41% response rate
10% - 16% response rate

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