Emerg Med J 30:579-582 doi:10.1136/emermed-2011-201067
  • Prehospital care
  • Original article

Oxylator and SCUBA dive regulators: useful utilities for in-water resuscitation

  1. Claus-Martin Muth1
  1. 1Department of anaesthesiology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany
  2. 2German Naval Medical Institute, Kiel-Kronshagen, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bernd E Winkler, Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Ulm, Steinhoevelstr. 9, 89075 Ulm, Germany; bernd.e.winkler{at}
  1. Contributors All authors contributed to the current manuscript in the following fields: design of the study conduction of the experiments data analysis and interpretation manuscript preparation approval of the manuscript.

  • Accepted 22 June 2012
  • Published Online First 16 July 2012


Introduction In water resuscitation has been reported to enhance the outcome of drowning victims. Mouth-to-mouth ventilation during swimming is challenging. Therefore, the efficacy of ventilation utilities was evaluated.

Methods Ventilation was assessed with the Oxylator ventilator, as well as the consecutive self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) regulators using an anaesthetic test lung: Poseidon Cyklon 5000, Poseidon XStream, Apeks TX 100, Spiro Arctic, Scubapro Air2 and Buddy AutoAir.

Results Oxylator, Apeks TX 100, Arctic and Buddy AutoAir delivered reliable peak pressures and tidal volumes. In contrast, the ventilation parameters remarkably depended on duration and depth of pressing the purge button in Poseidon Cyklon 5000, Poseidon XStream and Scubapro Air2. Critical peak pressures occurred during ventilation with all these three regulators.

Discussion The use of Poseidon Cyklon 5000, Poseidon XStream and Scubapro Air2 regulators is consequently not recommended for in-water ventilation. With the limitation that the devices were tested with a test lung and not in a human field study, Apeks TX 100, Spiro Arctic and Buddy AutoAir might be used for emergency ventilation and probably ease in-water resuscitation for the dive buddy of the victim. Professional rescue divers could be equipped with the Oxylator and an oxygen tank to achieve an early onset of efficient in-water ventilation in drowning victims.


  • Funding The Oxylator ventilator was provided for the duration of the experiments by Panomed (Wessling, Germany) for free. The authors did neither receive direct nor indirect financial support for the present study.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Among patients with minor TBI (GCS 13-15) getting CT scans ≥ 24 hours after injury, what proportion have a traumatic finding?


0.5% - 43% response rate
3% - 41% response rate
10% - 16% response rate

Related original article: PCT head imaging in patients with head injury who present after 24 h of injury: a retrospective cohort study

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