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Pain and suffering: twins that can be managed using an interdisciplinary and biopsychosocial health model
  1. Jonathan Niranjan Rajan,
  2. Winston Fidelis de Mello,
  3. Siobhan Bond
  1. Pain Clinic, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jonathan Niranjan Rajan, Pain Clinic, University Hospital of South Manchester, Baguley Suite, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester, Lancashire M23 9LT, UK; jonnyrajan{at}doctors.org.uk

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We congratulate the authors in highlighting the biopsychosocial nature of pain and its implications for the emergency department.1 The first biopsychosocial model of illness was presented in 1977 by Engel, but Wordsworth, in a historic review of the subject, has shown this model this to be evident throughout history.2 3

The prime …

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