Emerg Med J doi:10.1136/emermed-2012-201984
  • Original article

Emergency care staff experiences of lay presence during adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a phenomenological study

  1. Wendy Marina Walker
  1. Correspondence to Dr Wendy Marina Walker, University of Wolverhampton, UK, Centre for Health and Social Care Improvement, School of Health and Wellbeing, ML116, Deanery Row, Off Molineux Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1DT, UK; w.m.walker{at}
  • Received 18 September 2012
  • Revised 6 January 2013
  • Accepted 6 February 2013
  • Published Online First 14 March 2013


Background Public support in favour of family presence during an adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempt is a contentious issue among providers of emergency care. Researchers have mostly relied on attitudinal surveys to elicit staff views, leaving the life-world of those who have experienced this phenomenon, largely unexplored.

Objective To explore the lived experience of lay presence during an adult CPR attempt in primary (out-of-hospital) and secondary (inhospital) environments of care.

Design Hermeneutical phenomenological study.

Methods Semistructured, face-to-face interviews with 8 ambulance staff and 12 registered nurses. The interviews were audio-recorded and subjected to thematic analysis.

Results Participants provided insight into situations where lay presence during adult CPR came about either spontaneously or as a planned event. Their accounts portrayed a mixture of benefits and concerns. Familiarity of working in the presence of lay people, practical experience in emergency care and personal confidence were important antecedents. Divergent practices within and across the contexts of care were revealed. The concept of exposure emerged as the essence of this phenomenon. Overall, the study findings serve to challenge some of the previously reported attitudes and opinions of emergency care staff.

Conclusions Improved intraprofessional and interprofessional collaboration is essential to overcoming the barriers associated with lay presence during adult CPR. The future of this practice is dependent on initiatives that seek to bring about attitudinal change. Priority should be given to further exploring this phenomenon in the context of patient and family centred end-of-life care.

Free sample
This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of EMJ.
View free sample issue >>

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.


Among patients with minor TBI (GCS 13-15) getting CT scans ≥ 24 hours after injury, what proportion have a traumatic finding?


0.5% - 43% response rate
3% - 41% response rate
10% - 16% response rate

Related original article: PCT head imaging in patients with head injury who present after 24 h of injury: a retrospective cohort study

Navigate This Article