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Paramedical risk framing during field referral of acute stroke and S–T elevation myocardial infarction patients
  1. Anthony Gerard Campeau
  1. Correspondence to Dr Anthony Gerard Campeau, Sunnybrook Centre for Pre-Hospital Medicine, University of Toronto, 77 Brown's Line, Suite 100, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M8W 3S2; anthony.campeau{at}


Field referral of emergency ambulance patients by paramedics on a widespread basis is a relatively new aspect of paramedicine. Its implementation involves a significant revision to paramedics’ clinical responsibilities and level of interaction with medical specialists. Using grounded theory methodology, this qualitative study uses interviews with paramedics from Ontario, Canada, to explore the framing of risk associated with these referrals in the context of caring for patients with two high-stakes medical conditions: acute stroke and S–T elevation myocardial infarction. The results outline how paramedics have incorporated risk framing into their practice.

  • paramedics
  • practitioners
  • prehospital care, clinical management

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