Table 1

 Modalities used in the assessment of blunt chest trauma

History and physical examination
Plain radiograph
Cardiac enzymes
    Creatinine phosphokinase myocardial band (CPK-MB)
    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI)
    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT)
Echocardiography
    Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE)
    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE)
Nuclear imaging studies
    Gated radionucleotide angiography (RNA)
    Multiple gated acquisition angiography (MUGA)
    Technetium pyrophosphate scanning
    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)