Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study sample. Data are presented as overall, and then stratified by cases in which ROSC was and was not achieved. Percentages for categorical variables represent proportions within groupings for the column describing all attempted resuscitation cases, while percentages comparing cases where ROSC was achieved reflect the individual row

ROSC achieved
GroupingCharacteristicAll attempted resuscitationROSC achievedNo ROSC achievedP value
Number of cases660159 (24.1%)501 (75.9%)
Age, median (IQR)42.5 (28–61)53 (29–72)40 (27–59)<0.001
Sex, n (%)0.666
Male476 (72.1%)111 (23.3%)365 (76.7%)
Female157 (23.8%)42 (26.8%)115 (73.2%)
Indeterminate/unknown27 (4.1%)6 (22.2%)21 (77.8%)
Location, n (%)<0.001
Public place466 (70.6%)93 (20.0%)373 (80.0%)
Private residence112 (17.0%)34 (30.4%)78 (69.6%)
Other/unknown82 (12.4%)32 (39.0%)50 (60.1%)
Region, n (%)0.036
Urban464 (70.3%)124 (26.7%)340 (73.3%)
Rural192 (29.1%)35 (18.2%)157 (81.8%)
Unknown4 (0.6%)0 (0%)4 (100%)
Type of trauma, n (%)0.375
Blunt535 (81.1%)133 (24.9%)402 (75.1%)
Penetrating120 (18.2%)24 (20.0%)96 (80.0%)
Unknown5 (0.8%)2 (40.0%)3 (60.0%)
Injury mechanism, n (%)0.068
Motor vehicle collision187 (28.3%)44 (23.5%)143 (76.5%)
Motorcycle collision120 (18.2%)18 (15.0%)102 (85.0%)
Pedestrian collision90 (13.6%)21 (23.3%)69 (76.7%)
Bicycle collision15 (2.3%)3 (20.0%)12 (80.0%)
Train collision (pedestrian)11 (1.7%)2 (18.2%)9 (81.8%)
Fall83 (12.6%)30 (36.1%)53 (63.9%)
Shooting29 (4.4%)6 (20.7%)23 (79.3%)
Stabbing48 (7.3%)10 (20.8%)38 (79.2%)
Blunt assault20 (3.0%)8 (40.0%)12 (60.0%)
Other*54 (8.2%)16 (29.6%)38 (70.4%)
Unknown3 (0.5%)1 (33.3%)2 (66.7%)
Arrest witnessed by, n (%)<0.001
Bystander329 (49.9%)65 (19.8%)264 (80.2%)
EMS208 (31.5%)72 (34.6%)136 (65.4%)
Unwitnessed105 (15.9%)20 (19.0%)85 (81.0%)
Unknown18 (2.7%)2 (11.1%)16 (88.9%)
Bystander CPR initiated in cases where arrest was witnessed by bystander, n (%)166 (50.5%)28 (16.9%)138 (83.1%)0.184
Response time for non-EMS witnessed cases, median (IQR)9.6 (7.5–14.0)8.5 (7.1–11.5)10 (7.5–15.0)0.011
Prolonged downtime, n (%)144 (21.8%)17 (11.8%)127 (88.2%)<0.001
Initial arresting rhythm, n (%)<0.001
VF/VT37 (5.6%)15 (40.5%)22 (59.5%)
Pulseless electrical activity334 (50.6%)100 (29.9%)234 (71.1%)
Asystole274 (41.5%)37 (13.5%)237 (86.5%)
Unknown15 (2.3%)7 (29.9%)8 (70.1%)
  • *The ‘other’ grouping includes crush events, fire exposure and industrial events.

  • CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS, emergency medical services; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; VF, ventricular fibrillation; VT, ventricular tachycardia.