Table 3

Logistic regression model with survival to hospital (ROSC on hospital handover) as the outcome (n=636). Results are presented as univariate and multivariable analyses

Univariate OR (95% CI)P valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)P value
Age ≥65 years2.21 (1.40 to 4.38)0.0011.46 (0.86 to 2.46)0.160
Region
 UrbanReferenceReference
 Rural0.31 (0.16 to 0.58)<0.0010.39 (0.19 to 0.80)0.011
Witnessed
 Unwitnessed/unknownReferenceReference
 Bystander0.86 (0.47 to 1.59)0.6360.88 (0.42 to 1.84)0.738
 EMS1.39 (0.75 to 2.59)0.2951.18 (0.51 to 2.73)0.707
Bystander CPR*0.62 (0.38 to 1.01)0.0550.71 (0.38 to 1.33)0.284
Rhythm
 AsystoleReferenceReference
 VF/VT4.58 (2.06 to 10.17)<0.0013.92 (1.63 to 9.41)0.002
 PEA1.72 (1.04 to 2.84)0.0341.42 (0.81 to 2.50)0.226
Response time (min)†
 0–10ReferenceReference
 11–200.53 (0.30 to 0.95)0.0320.84 (0.41 to 1.73)0.643
 >200.21 (0.05 to 0.87)0.0310.28 (0.04 to 2.28)0.236
 Prolonged downtime0.53 (0.28 to 0.97)0.0410.86 (0.37 to 1.98)0.715
Trauma type
 BluntReferenceReference
 Penetrating0.56 (0.29 to 1.08)0.0840.27 (0.08 to 0.91)0.034
Mechanism of injury
 Motor vehicle collisionReferenceReference
 Motorcycle collision0.46 (0.19 to 1.12)0.0890.56 (0.22 to 1.42)0.223
 Pedestrian1.27 (0.61 to 2.65)0.5301.04 (0.47 to 2.32)0.928
 Fall3.05 (1.59 to 5.85)0.0012.16 (1.03 to 4.54)0.042
 Shooting/stabbing0.87 (0.37 to 2.05)0.7492.23 (0.53 to 9.38)0.273
 Other1.88 (0.97 to 3.63)0.0632.05 (0.98 to 4.31)0.057
 Unknown3.75 (0.33 to 43.08)0.28917.28 (0.71 to 418.32)0.080
  • *Bystander CPR was coded as 0 when the arrest was witnessed by EMS.

  • †Response time was coded as 0 when the arrest was witnessed by EMS.

  • CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS, emergency medical services; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; PEA, pulseless electrical activity; VF, ventricular fibrillation; VT, ventricular tachycardia.