OBJECTIVE: To determine, using an animal model of blood loss, (1) if stroke distance, derived non-invasively from the time integral of the maximum velocity of red cells in the aorta, changed to a greater extent than heart rate and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which are recognised to be unreliable indicators of blood loss; (2) if changes in stroke distance reflected changes in stroke volume derived from thermodilution cardiac output measurements. METHODS: Eight anaesthetised swine had baseline measurements of heart rate, MAP, stroke volume, and stroke distance and were then exsanguinated at a rate of 1 ml/kg/min. Percentage changes from baseline of heart rate, MAP, stroke volume, and stroke distance were compared after 10, 20, and 30 ml/kg blood loss. The animal's blood was then reinfused at the rate of 2 ml/kg/min for 15 min, followed by normal saline 1 ml/kg/min. Percentage changes from baseline measurement of stroke volume and stroke distance over the whole experiment were evaluated by regression analysis. RESULTS: Heart rate, MAP, and stroke distance changed +7.9%, -22.5%, and -18.1% respectively (from baseline values) after 10 ml/kg blood loss; +23.2%, -44.0%, and -47.4% after 20 ml/kg blood loss; and +55.7%, -62.0%, and -69.8% after 30 ml/kg blood loss. Regression analysis of percentage changes in stroke volume and stroke distance from their baseline values at experimental time zero is stroke volume = 1.014 x stroke distance -2.156, r = 0.92, n = 54, P < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: (1) At maximal blood loss, stroke distance changes to a greater extent than heart rate and MAP. (2) Changes in stroke distance reflected changes in stroke volume but with less variability at lower values. Stroke distance may be a more useful measure of blood loss than heart rate and MAP.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.