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Derivation of a typology for the classification of risks in emergency medicine
  1. M Thomas1,
  2. K Mackway-Jones1,
  3. N Boreham2
  1. 1Emergency Department, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
  2. 2Human Factor Research Group, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
 Professor K Mackway-Jones
 Emergency Department, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK;


Objectives: To develop a graded classification system for risks in emergency medicine. To test the inter-user reliability of this classification system.

Design: Prospective collection of data involving emergency department (ED) critical incidents. Derivation of classification system using the collected critical incidents. Comparison of results of classification of a sample of the critical incidents between different users of the system.

Setting: EDs in two teaching hospitals and two district general hospitals (DGHs) in the north west of England.

Interventions: Observational study.

Main outcomes: Classification system itself. Results of classification of same critical incidents by different users.

Results: 816 critical incidents were identified and used to derive a typology. This typology was found to have inter-user reliability score of 86% (95% confidence intervals 76.4% to 95.6%).

Conclusions: The typology that has been derived is a reliable tool for the classification of risks in emergency medicine.

  • ED, emergency department
  • DGH, district general hospital
  • risks
  • typology

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