Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Prehospital care in Indonesia
  1. E Pitt1,
  2. A Pusponegoro2
  1. 1Accident and Emergency Department, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK
  2. 2Department of Surgery, University of Indonesia, Cipto Mangunkusomo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr E Pitt
 Accident and Emergency Department, Level 4, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK;


Background: Indonesia is a huge, diverse, and developing country that until recently had no public ambulance service let alone a system of prehospital care. It commonly experiences many natural disasters, manmade conflicts, and violence as well as the daily emergencies seen worldwide.

Current system: Hospitals of varying standards are widespread but have no system of emergency ambulance or patient retrieval. Indonesia’s only public emergency ambulance service, 118, is based in five of the biggest cities and is leading the way in paramedic training and prehospital care.

Challenges and developments: There are many challenges faced including the culture of acceptance, vast geographical areas, traffic, inadequate numbers of ambulances, and access to quality training resources. Recently there have been a number of encouraging developments including setting up of a disaster response brigade, better provision of ambulances, and development of paramedic training.

Conclusions: An integrated national regionalised hospital and prehospital system may seem fantastic but with the enthusiasm of those involved and perhaps some help from countries with access to training resources it may not be an unrealistic goal.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding: none.

  • Conflicts of interest: AP is the director of the Disaster Response Brigade and 118 Emergency Ambulance Service.

  • Ethics approval: none.