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Rewarming of healthy volunteers after induced mild hypothermia: a healthy volunteer study
  1. A B Williams1,
  2. A Salmon2,
  3. P Graham2,
  4. D Galler1,
  5. M J Payton2,
  6. M Bradley3
  1. 1Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland, New Zealand
  2. 2Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Corporation, Auckland, New Zealand
  3. 3Centre for Clinical Research and Effective Practice, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland, New Zealand
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr A B Williams
 Middlemore Hospital, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Private Bag 93311, Otahuhu, Auckland, New Zealand;


Objectives: The study compares the efficacy of two active and one passive warming interventions in healthy volunteers with induced mild hypothermia.

Methods: Eight volunteers were studied in a random order crossover design. Each volunteer was studied during re-warming from a core temperature of 35°C with each of: a radiant warmer (Fisher & Paykel); a forced air warmer (Augustine Medical), and a polyester filled blanket, to re-warm.

Results: No significant differences in re-warming rates were observed between the three warming devices. It was found that the subject’s endogenous heat production was the major contributor to the re-warming of these volunteers. Metabolic rates of over 350 W were seen during the study.

Conclusions: For patients with mild hypothermia and in whom shivering is not contraindicated our data would indicate that the rate of re-warming would be little different whether a blanket or one of the two active devices were used. In the field, this may provide the caregiver a useful choice.

  • BMI, body mass index
  • hypothermia
  • patient warming
  • radiant heating

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  • Competing interests: three of the authors work for Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Corporation, manufacturer of one of the devices tested

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