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Emergency Medicine Questions (EMQs)
  1. M Davey, Coordinators,
  2. S Alfred,
  3. C Huynh,
  4. S Semmler

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    Theme: Chemical injury

    Question 1

    Which of the following are true of hydrofluoric acid (HF)-induced injury?

    1. The dermal injury caused by HF exposures is similar to other acids in that it is mediated by coagulative necrosis.

    2. Domestic dermal exposures to HF are usually quickly recognised due to the associated severe pain.

    3. Arterial infusion of calcium gluconate may aid control of extremity burns refractory to topical treatment.

    4. Systemic toxicity is mediated by the fluoride ion.

    Question 2

    Which of the following are true of alkali ingestion?

    1. The likelihood of significant corrosive injury is best predicted by the volume ingested.

    2. Significant systemic absorption is uncommon following high-risk ingestion.

    3. All ingestions should be investigated endoscopically within 24 h to assess the extent of corrosive injury.

    4. Corticosteroid administration has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of oesophageal strictures.

    Question 3

    Which of the following are true with regard to hydrogen sulphide?

    1. Its characteristic and prominent “rotten egg” smell generally allows those exposed to remove themselves from danger before the development of toxicity.

    2. Cellular toxicity is similar to that of cyanide.

    3. Clinical findings are modified directly by gas concentration and duration of exposure. …

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    • Provenance and Peer review Commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.