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Comparison of four manikins and fresh frozen cadaver models for direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation training
  1. J H Yang1,
  2. Y-M Kim1,
  3. H S Chung2,
  4. J Cho2,
  5. H-M Lee3,
  6. G-H Kang4,
  7. E-C Kim5,
  8. T Lim6,
  9. Y S Cho7
  1. 1
    Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
  2. 2
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
  3. 3
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
  4. 4
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
  5. 5
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea
  6. 6
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
  7. 7
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Soon Chun Hyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, South Korea


Objective: To compare the acceptability and preference between manikin models and fresh frozen cadaver (FFC) for direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation training.

Methods: In this prospective crossover trial, participants in the airway workshop performed direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation on four airway training manikins: Airway Management Trainer (Ambu, St Ives, UK), Airway Trainer (Laerdal, Medical, Stavanger, Norway), Airsim (Trucorp, Belfast, Northern Ireland) and “Bill 1” (VBM, Sulz, Germany), and FFC. Participants were asked to access the following: reality of jaw mobility, difficulty with mouth opening, reality of neck flexibility, difficulty with intubation, overall model reality and model preference for each model using a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0–10 cm. The VAS scores for each model were compared.

Results: Fifty-six participants were included in the study. The FFC had a highest VAS score for reality of jaw mobility, overall reality and preference of model. Trucorp manikin and Laerdal manikin followed cadaver. There were no significant statistical differences between Trucorp manikin and Laerdal manikin. In difficulty with mouth opening and difficulty with intubation, Trucorp manikin had the lowest VAS score.

Conclusion: The FFC is a more realistic and preferred model for direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation training. Trucorp and Laerdal manikin can be used as alternative models.

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  • Competing interests Declared. The manikins used in this study were donated free of charge by Ambu Korea, Laerdal Korea, Trucorp Korea and VBM Korea.

  • Provenance and Peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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