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Comparison of four manikins and fresh frozen cadaver models for direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation training


Objective: To compare the acceptability and preference between manikin models and fresh frozen cadaver (FFC) for direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation training.

Methods: In this prospective crossover trial, participants in the airway workshop performed direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation on four airway training manikins: Airway Management Trainer (Ambu, St Ives, UK), Airway Trainer (Laerdal, Medical, Stavanger, Norway), Airsim (Trucorp, Belfast, Northern Ireland) and “Bill 1” (VBM, Sulz, Germany), and FFC. Participants were asked to access the following: reality of jaw mobility, difficulty with mouth opening, reality of neck flexibility, difficulty with intubation, overall model reality and model preference for each model using a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0–10 cm. The VAS scores for each model were compared.

Results: Fifty-six participants were included in the study. The FFC had a highest VAS score for reality of jaw mobility, overall reality and preference of model. Trucorp manikin and Laerdal manikin followed cadaver. There were no significant statistical differences between Trucorp manikin and Laerdal manikin. In difficulty with mouth opening and difficulty with intubation, Trucorp manikin had the lowest VAS score.

Conclusion: The FFC is a more realistic and preferred model for direct laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation training. Trucorp and Laerdal manikin can be used as alternative models.

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