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Epidemiology of prehospital pain: an opportunity for improvement
  1. Paul Andrew Jennings1,2,
  2. Peter Cameron2,
  3. Stephen Bernard1,2
  1. 1Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Monash University, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Paul Andrew Jennings, Monash University, The Alfred Centre, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia; paul.jennings{at}


This retrospective, electronic patient care record review examined a consecutive sample of patients presenting with pain to the metropolitan region of Ambulance Victoria over a period of 12 months in 2008. The majority of patients did not achieve clinically significant pain reduction, but did achieve some pain relief while in ambulance care. Those with the most severe pain had pain reduction that was clinically significant. Further research is needed to provide optimal pain relief in the prehospital setting.

  • Pain
  • emergency medical services
  • emergency medicine
  • epidemiology
  • wounds and injuries
  • analgesia/pain control
  • major incidents
  • epidemiology
  • nursing
  • pre-hospital
  • trauma

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.