Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Modified early warning score with rapid lactate level in critically ill medical patients: the ViEWS-L score
  1. Sion Jo1,
  2. Jae Baek Lee1,2,
  3. Young Ho Jin1,2,
  4. Tae Oh Jeong1,2,
  5. Jae Chol Yoon1,
  6. Yong Kyu Jun1,
  7. Bo Young Park3
  1. 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea
  2. 2School of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
  3. 3National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang si, Kyunggi do, Korea
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jae Baek Lee, Department of Emergency Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital, 20 Gunji-ro, 634-18, Geumam-dong, Jeonju-si, Jeonlabuk-do 561-712, Republic of Korea; baeklee{at}


Objectives To examine whether the predictive value of the early warning score (EWS) could be improved by including rapid lactate levels, and to compare the modified EWS with the pre-existing risk scoring systems.

Design Retrospective observational study in South Korea.

Setting An urban, academic, tertiary hospital.

Participants Consecutive adult patients who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit via the emergency department (ED).

Outcome measures A newly developed EWS—the VitalPAC EWS (ViEWS), was used in the present study. Lactate level, ViEWS and HOTEL score were obtained from patients at presentation to the ED, and APACHE II, SAPS II and SAPS III scores were obtained after admission. The area under curve of each risk scoring system for in-hospital, 1-week, 2-week and 4-week mortality was compared.

Results 151 patients were enrolled and the mortality was 42.4%. The ViEWS-L score was calculated as follows: ViEWS-L score=ViEWS+lactate (mmol/l) according to the regression coefficient. The mean ViEWS-L score was 11.6±7.3. The ViEWS-L score had a better predictive value than the ViEWS score for hospital mortality (0.802 vs 0.742, p=0.009), 1-week mortality (0.842 vs 0.707, p<0.001), 2-week mortality (0.827 vs 0.729, p<0.001) and 4-week mortality (0.803 vs 0.732, p=0.003). The ViEWS-L score also had a better predictive value than the HOTEL and APACHE II scores. The predictive value of ViEWS-L was comparable with SAPS II and SAPS III.

Conclusions The ViEWS-L score performed as well as or better than the pre-existing risk scoring systems in predicting mortality in critically ill medical patients who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit via the ED.

  • Early warning score
  • lactic acid
  • critically ill patient
  • mortality
  • emergency care systems

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent This is a retrospective chart review study and waiver of patient consent was given by the institutional review board of the study hospital.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the institutional review board of Chonbuk National University Hospital.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.