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Performance of emergency physicians in point-of-care echocardiography following limited training
  1. Aida Bustam1,
  2. Muhaimin Noor Azhar1,
  3. Ramesh Singh Veriah2,
  4. Kulenthran Arumugam3,
  5. Alexander Loch4
  1. 1Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. 2Department of Cardiology, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  3. 3Medical Education and Research Development Unit, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  4. 4Departments of Cardiology and Emergency Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Aida Bustam, Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia; aidabustam{at}


Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if emergency medicine trainees with a short duration of training in echocardiography could perform and interpret bedside-focused echocardiography reliably on emergency department patients.

Methods Following a web-based learning module and 3 h of proctored practical training, emergency medicine trainees were evaluated in technical and interpretative skills in estimating left ventricular function, detection of pericardial effusion and inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter measurements using bedside-focused echocardiography on emergency department patients. An inter-rater agreement analysis was performed between the trainees and a board-certified cardiologist.

Results 100 focused echocardiography examinations were performed by nine emergency medicine trainees. Agreement between the trainees and the cardiologist was 93% (K=0.79, 95% CI 0.773 to 0.842) for visual estimation of left ventricular function, 92.9% (K=0.80, 95% CI 0.636 to 0.882) for quantitative left ventricular ejection fraction by M-mode measurements, 98% (K=0.74, 95% CI 0.396 to 1.000) for the detection of pericardial effusion, and 64.2% (K=0.45, 95% CI 0.383 to 0.467) for IVC diameter assessment. The Bland–Altman limits of agreement for left ventricular function was −9.5% to 13.7%, and a Pearson's correlation yielded a value of 0.82 (p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.734 to 0.881). The trainees detected pericardial effusion with a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 97.9%.

Conclusions Emergency medicine trainees were found to be able to perform and interpret focused echocardiography reliably after a short duration of training.

  • Ultrasound
  • Education, Teaching
  • Emergency Department

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