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Primary care services co-located with Emergency Departments across a UK region: early views on their development
  1. Suzanne Ablard1,
  2. Colin O’Keeffe1,
  3. Shammi Ramlakhan2,
  4. Suzanne M Mason1
  1. 1 School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  2. 2 Sheffield Children’s Hospital and Sheffield Teaching Hospital, Western Bank, Sheffield, UK
  1. Correspondence to Suzanne Ablard, School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DA, UK; s.ablard{at}


Background Co-location of primary care services with Emergency Departments (ED) is one initiative aiming to reduce the burden on EDs of patients attending with non-urgent problems. However, the extent to which these services are operating within or alongside EDs is not currently known.

This study aimed to create a typology of co-located primary care services in operation across Yorkshire and Humber (Y&H) as well as identify early barriers and facilitators to their implementation and sustainability.

Methods A self-report survey was sent to the lead consultant or other key contact at 17 EDs in the Y&H region to establish the extent and configuration of co-located primary care services. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with urgent and unscheduled care stakeholders across five hospital sites to explore the barriers and facilitators to the formation and sustainability of these services.

Results Thirteen EDs completed the survey and interviews were carried out with four ED consultants, one ED nurse and three general practitioners (GPs). Three distinct models were identified: ‘Primary Care Services Embedded within the ED’ (seven sites), ‘Co-located Urgent Care Centre’ (two sites) and ‘GP out-of-hours’ (nine sites). Qualitative data were analysed using framework analysis. Four interview themes emerged (justification for the service, level of integration, referral processes and sustainability) highlighting some of the challenges in implementing these co-located primary care services.

Conclusion Creating a service within or alongside the ED in which GPs can use their distinct skills and therefore add value to the existing skill mix of ED staff is an important consideration when setting up these systems. Effective triage arrangements should also be established to ensure appropriate patients are referred to GPs. Further research is required to identify the full range of models nationally and to carry out a rigorous assessment of their impact.

  • Emergency Department
  • Primary Care
  • Barriers
  • Systems

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  • Contributors All authors contributed to the design of the study (SA, SR, COK and SMM). SA, SR and COK conducted the study including recruitment, data collection and data analysis. SA prepared the manuscript draft with important input from COK. SMM provided intellectual input throughout the entire project. All authors approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The research was funded by the NIHR CLAHRC Yorkshire and Humber, The views expressed are those of the author(s), and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement This is a qualitative study focused on the experiences and opinions of staff working in emergency departments with co-located primary care services. It is not possible to fully anonymise the data and therefore the data generated are not suitable for sharing beyond that contained within the report. Further information can be obtained from the corresponding author.