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Emergency procedures for patients with a continuous flow left ventricular assist device
  1. Juliane Vierecke1,4,
  2. Martin Schweiger2,
  3. David Feldman3,4,
  4. Evgenij Potapov1,
  5. Friedrich Kaufmann1,
  6. Lorenzo Germinario1,
  7. Roland Hetzer1,
  8. Volkmar Falk1,
  9. Thomas Krabatsch1
  1. 1 Klinik für Herz-, Thorax- und Gefäßchirurgie, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  2. 2 Department of Congenital Pediatric Surgery, Zurich Children's Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland
  3. 3 Division of Cardiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, USA
  4. 4 Division of Cardiology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Juliane Vierecke, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany; juliane_vierecke{at}


The number of ventricular assist devices (VADs) being implanted for terminal heart failure is rising at an exponential rate. These implanted patients have a decreased mortality, but still have significant morbidities, as the prevalence of these patients increases in the community. When VAD patients are discharged to home, they will very likely require emergency medical services (EMSs) and emergency medical doctors (EDs) with their future care. The interface of these patients with the community would suggest an increasing prevalence of encounters requiring the need for acute medical care. This will place the initial responsibility of these patients in the hands of EMS first responders and emergency room providers. To date, there is very little literature published on out-of-hospital or ED care for VAD patients. Most EMS personnel and ED feel uncomfortable treating a patient with a VAD because they have not had sufficient exposure. The cardiovascular treatment of VAD patients in the field can pose different challenges typically encountered including difficulties measuring a pulse and sometimes undetectable BP. Despite these unique challenges, official guidelines or even standard operating procedures regarding the emergency treatment of VAD patients are still lacking. We present a basic overview of the most commonly used left VAD systems and propose guidelines that should be followed in the event of an emergency with a VAD patient out of hospital.

  • cardiac care, heart failure
  • prehospital care
  • prehospital care, first responders
  • resuscitation, training

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  • Juliane Vierecke and Martin Schweiger contributed equally to this work.

  • Contributors JV is the main author of this paper. MS, DF wrote substantial sections. DF did all the English corrections. EP, LG, RH, VF and TK reviewed and approved the paper. Thanks to Mrs. Gale and Mrs. Benhennour for their help.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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