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BET 2: Missed diagnosis of ischaemic stroke in the emergency department
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    missed diagnosis of infective endocarditis-related stroke in the emergency department

    Failure to diagnose infective endocarditis(IE) as the underlying cause of embolic stroke merits recognition alongside failure to diagnose other subtypes of stroke,. The reason is that failure to recognise an infective basis for cerebral emboli precludes time-sensitive interventional strategies such as thrombectomy(1)(2) and, instead, exposes the patient to relatively contraindicated treatment options such as intravenous thrombolysis(IVT)(3)(4). One study compared outcomes from IVT in 222 patients(mean age 59) with IE-related stroke versus 134,048 subjects(mean age 69) with ischaemic stroke in the absence of IE. The rate of post-thrombolytic intracranial haemorrhage was significantly(P=0.006) higher in patients with IE-related stroke. The rate of favourable outcome was also significantly(P=0.01) lower in IE-related stroke(3). A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose IE-related stroke because both fever and heart murmurs are present in only a minority of IE patients at the time of presentation with stroke(4). For patients in whom a timely diagnosis of IE-related stroke is made thrombectomy appears to be a treatment option which generates a favourable outcome(1)(2).
    For the sake of completeness one also ought to mention the potential for meningovascular syphilis to be overlooked in a patient presenting with stroke both in HIV positive(5) and in HIV-negative subjects(6). In both instances neither IVT nor thrombectomy will suffice. Definitive treatment o...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.