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Gender and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a New Zealand registry study
  1. Bridget Dicker1,2,
  2. Kate Conaglen2,
  3. Graham Howie2
  1. 1Clinical Development, St John, Auckland, New Zealand
  2. 2Paramedicine, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bridget Dicker, Clinical development, St John, Auckland 1060, New Zealand; bridget.dicker{at}


Objective To determine the relationships between survival from all-cause out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and gender in New Zealand.

Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted using data compliant with the Utstein guidelines from the St John New Zealand OHCA Registry for adult patients who were treated for an OHCA between 1 October 2013 and 30 September 2015. Univariate logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with return of spontaneous circulation sustained to handover at hospital and survival to 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate outcome differences in survival according to gender at 30 days postevent.

Results Women survived to hospital handover in 29% of cases, which was not significantly different from men (31%). When adjusted for age, location, aetiology, initial rhythm and witnessed status, there was no significant difference in 30-day survival between men (16%) and women (13%) (adjusted OR 1.22, 95% CI (0.96 to 1.55), p=0.11).

Conclusion No statistical differences were found in 30-day survival between genders when adjustments for unfavourable Utstein variables were accounted for.

  • resuscitation
  • death/mortality
  • epidemiology
  • paramedics, clinical management
  • prehospital care

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  • Contributors All of the authors meet the conditions outlined for authorship as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE): They have made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data for the work; drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be published; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

  • Funding This study was supported by an Auckland University of Technology Summer Studentship Grant. The authors have no other financial support to declare.

  • Competing interests One of the authors is an employee of the St John ambulance service, which may pose a competing interest.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval Ethical approval for research using non-identifiable OHCA data was obtained from the Auckland University of Technology Ethics Committee (13/367) and the New Zealand Health and Disabilities Ethics Committee (13/STH/192/AM02).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.