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BET 2: Safety and efficacy of low-dose ketamine versus opioids for acute pain management in the ED
  1. Mohammed BinKharfi,
  2. Ali AlSagre
  1. McMaster University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mohammed BinKharfi, McMaster University, Ottawa, ON L8S 4L8, Canada; production.emj{at}


A short cut review was carried out to establish whether low-dose ketamine is a safe and effective alternative to opioids in ED patients in acute severe pain. 76 papers were found using the reported searches, of which seven presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is concluded that low-dose ketamine can be an effective and safe alternative to opioids in acute pain management.

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  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.