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In reply: Outcomes difference in non-invasive ventilation in ’very old' patients with acute respiratory failure: occult gender effect?
  1. Francesca Maria Trovato1,2,
  2. Gaetano Montoneri1,
  3. Paola Noto1,
  4. Giuseppe Mangano1,
  5. Giuseppe Carpinteri1,
  6. Lorenzo Malatino2
  1. 1 MCAU, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio-Emanuele, Catania, Italy
  2. 2 Department of Clinical and Experimental medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Francesca Maria Trovato, Department of Clinical and Experimental medicine, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania 95123, Italy; trovatofrancesca{at}

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To the Editor,

Thank you for the opportunity to discuss some important points raised by Tibullo and Esquinas in their recent letter.1

We understand that gender differences can affect the outcome of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and therefore the results of our study.2 Indeed, this concept was highlighted in the limitations of our study. Moreover, pulmonary oedema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were the main indications for NIV in our study. In the literature, it was already demonstrated how clinical presentation, risk factors and prognosis of …

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