Article Text

Download PDFPDF
OP6  Long term outcomes of participants in the paramedic-2 randomised trial of adrenaline in out of hospital cardiac arrest
  1. Kirstie L Haywood1,
  2. Chen Ji1,
  3. Tom Quinn2,
  4. Jerry P Nolan1,3,
  5. Charles D Deakin4,5,
  6. Charlotte Scomparin1,
  7. Ranjit Lall1,
  8. Simon Gates6,
  9. John Long1,
  10. Scott Regan1,
  11. Rachael T Fothergill1,7,
  12. Helen Pocock1,5,
  13. Nigel Rees8,
  14. Lyndsey O’Shea8,
  15. Gavin D Perkins1,9
  1. 1University of Warwick, UK
  2. 2Kingston University and St George’s, University of London, UK
  3. 3Royal United Hospital, Bath, UK
  4. 4NIHR Southampton Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, UK
  5. 5South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust, UK
  6. 6University of Birmingham, UK
  7. 7London Ambulance Service NHS Trust, UK
  8. 8Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Trust, UK
  9. 9University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, UK


Background We recently reported early outcomes in patients enrolled in a randomised trial of adrenaline in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the PARAMEDIC-2 (Prehospital Assessment of the Role of Adrenaline: Measuring the Effectiveness of Drug Administration in Cardiac Arrest) trial. The purpose of the present paper is to report long-term survival, quality of life, functional and cognitive outcomes in cardiac arrest patients who survived.

Methods PARAMEDIC-2 was a pragmatic, individually randomised, double blind, controlled trial and economic evaluation. Patients were randomised to either adrenaline or placebo. The 12-months survival post randomisation was checked. The 3- and 6-months outcomes included the modified Rankin Scale (0–3 defined as favourable neurological outcome), Two Simple Questions, the Mini Mental State Examination, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline Evaluation for Cardiac Arrest, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version and general health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed with both the Short-Form 12-item Health Survey and the EuroQoL EQ-5D-5L.

Results 8,014 patients were randomised with confirmed trial drug administration. Adrenaline survivors had marginally better 12-months survival (adjusted odds ratio: 1.385, 95% confidence interval: [1.000, 1.917], p=0.050). There was no significant treatment difference in favourable neurological outcome at both follow-ups. Similarly, no significant difference was found in other outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes are reported in both arms when survivors were compared to the UK general population regarding general HRQoL and physical health.

Conclusions Adrenaline had a short to long-term effect on survival to 12-months post OHCA, compared to placebo, but more survivors in the adrenaline arm had poor functional, cognitive and HRQoL. A large proportion of the survivors experienced significant cognitive impairment and an important reduction in mental and physical wellbeing over the initial 6-months when compared to the general population.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.