Ninety-six people died following a crowd crush at the Hillsborough Football Stadium, Sheffield, UK in 1989. The cause of death in nearly all cases was compression asphyxia. The clinical and pathological features of deaths encountered in crowds are discussed with a particular focus on the Hillsborough disaster.
- disaster planning and response
- cardiac arrest
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Handling editor Jason E Smith
Contributors JPN and JS were clinical expert witnesses to the Coroner for the 2014–2016 Hillsborough Inquests. GNR, WL, NC and JC were forensic pathologists to the Coroner during the 2014–2016 Hillsborough Inquests. NC, PL and AF-E were forensic pathologists representing the families during the 2014–2016 Hillsborough Inquests. All authors made substantial contributions to the conception and drafting of this manuscript and revising it critically for intellectual content. JPN is responsible for the overall content as guarantor.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests All authors received payment for their contributions as expert witnesses for the 2014–2016 Hillsborough Inquests.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Author note We wish to dedicate this paper in memory of the 96 men, women and children who lost their lives as a direct result of the Hillsborough Football Stadium disaster, 15 April 1989.
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