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Kazakhstan is the ninth largest country in the world in terms of area. It is divided into 14 geographical regions and 3 big cities and has a population of 19.1 million people as of January 2021. People that live in cities comprise 58% of the total population.
Kazakhstan gained its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Having been a part of the Soviet Union in the past, Kazakhstan’s education and science naturally mirrored those of Russia. Many generations of regional scientists have been nurtured under the influence of Russian handbooks, monographs, dissertations and seminal articles published in the central press, which can explain why Kazakhstan acts similarly to the Russian Federation in the field of scientific methods and health services.1 Even if Soviet medical education was effective in the past, it is argued that it is no longer relevant in today’s globalised society.2 However, it is claimed that the effects of the Soviet school still continue in medical education and health practices.3 Until recently, the strict educational standards supported state-driven, disciplinary-based curricula, with fixed approaches to teaching and assessment.3 However, with the initiation of medical education transformation in March 2010, following Kazakhstan’s participation in the Bologna declaration, a Western-style competency-based education was adopted in the curriculum.
Three levels of health services are provided in each region. Primary healthcare is usually provided by general practitioners in clinics in rural areas. However, in cases where urgent intervention is necessary, patients are referred to …
Handling editor Mary Dawood
Contributors UCD, MKG and ZY contributed to the design, data gathering, drafting and review and gave final approval for publishing the article. All authors declare authorship according to ICMJE authorship criteria and agree to be held accountable for all aspects of the work.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.