Table 3
Author, date and countryPatient groupStudy levelOutcomesKey resultsStudy weakness
Lindmarker P and Holmstrom M, 1996, Sweden1434 patients with symptomatic DVT, 239 proximal, 195 distalCohortRecurrent DVT, incidence of pulmonary embolus, bleeding events, deathFrequency of major events during the administration of LMWH was 0.92% with an exact 95% CI of 0.25, 2.35%High incidence of distal DVT (45%) may have affected the complication rate
Patients were followed up for 3 monthsDuring the 3 month follow up period there were 3 reoccurrences and 1 PE
There were no deaths during initial treatment with LMWH
Mattiasson I, et al, 1997, Sweden2523 consecutive patients from 6 hospitalsCohortAny bleeding event, pulmonary embolus (PE), progression of thrombusNo serious bleeding event was reported.Excluded patients with thrombus involving the v iliaca and v cava This may reflect the zero incidence of PE
Patients followed up for 3 monthsNo serious thromboembolic complication was noted.
Eligibility197/523 (38%) were deemed suitable (according to criteria) for total outpatient care 43 (8%) were initially hospitalised but then discharged after a median of 2 days
Grau E, et al, 1998, Spain371 consecutive patients presenting to the ED with a DVT (56 proximal, 15 calf)CohortRecurrent venous thromboembolic event (VTE)No patients had VTE recurrence during the 6 months of follow up.Small number of patients
Patients were assessed monthly for 6 monthsAmbulatory careAmbulatory care was feasible in 39 (55%) of patients. 24 of these were not hospitalised at all and the remaining 15 were discharged within 2 days
Groce B, 1998, USA4125/142 patients with acute proximal DVTCohortLength of stayFrom 5.4 to 0.97 days.Preliminary results
84 patients were in hospital ≤24 hours. The remaining 41 stayed between 1.1 and 3 days
Recurrent DVT1/125
BleedingIn 2/125
Harrison L, et al, 1998, Canada589/113 consecutive patientsCohortBleeding episodeThere was 1 bleeding episode requiring admissionSome patients were followed up at 3 months over the telephone, which may affect validity of findings
69 had proximal DVT, 11 calf vein DVT, 7 had upper extremity DVT, 2 had PERecurrent VTE5 cases of recurrent VTE were reported (all had malignant disease)
Patients were followed up at 3 months after initial diagnosis1 death was reported
Patient satisfaction75/82 (91%) were pleased at home treatmentPossibility that satisfaction questionnaire not validated
Ting S, et al, 1998, Australia6100 consecutive patients with acute lower limb DVT (53 proximal, distal 47)CohortBleeding6 minor bleeding complications. In 2 of these Dalteparin was stopped
Patients were followed up for 6 monthsRecurrent VTE4 patients had reoccurrence between 5–12 months
PENo episodes of symptomatic PE reported
Wells P, et al, 1998, USA7194/233 patients presenting with DVT were recruited into 2 care modelsCohortRecurrent VTEThe overall recurrent event rate was 3.6% (95% CI 1.5%, 7.4%)As patients were cared for in a highly supervised research setting, evidence of their satisfaction/anxiety with the service could have been assessed
Patients were followed up for 6 monthsBleeding eventsThe overall rate of major haemorrahge was 2.0% (95% CI 0.6%, 5.2%)
More than 184/194 patients were treated mainly at home
Yusen D, et al, 1999, USA8195 hospitalised patients diagnosed as having a proximal DVT were assessed for outpatient treatment.CohortRecurrent VTE, major bleeding, deathNo complications were recorded in any of the 36 eligible or possibly eligible patientsCriteria applied retrospectively
EligibilityOf the 159 patients classified as ineligible, 13 (8%; 95% CI 4%, 12%) died or developed serious complicationsLack of documentation may have limited the ability to determine accurate complication rates