Table 1

Summary of some of the many theories that help describe different aspects of motivation (derived from references 2,3)

AuthorTheoryBrief description
ScheinBasic description of views of human motivation
MayoHawthorne StudyOriginal research that indicated that social factors were much more important in motivation than physical factors. Also showed that if you try to study a behaviour, that behaviour alters simply due to the study.
MaslowHierarchy of NeedsMotivation drivers vary from basic physiological to self fulfilment. As each level is satisfied the next becomes the main motivator.
McGregorTheory X & YTheory X workers need supervision and driving. Theory Y workers are self driven.
HerzbergMotivation-HygieneThe motivation of a workforce depends on the balance between positive drivers (motivators) and negative influences (hygeine factors)
LikertDescription of management styles and organisational structure
McCellandAcheivement motivationDescription of motivation in terms of need for Achievement, Power and Affiliation.
VroomExpectancyExamines the components of motivation
RobbinsEquityExamines the effect of the perception equity of rewards or position on motivation.
OuchiTheory ZThe Japanese approach of a high degree of management/worker integration.