Table 4

Summary of the studies comparing comparing atypical antipsychotics with classic antipsychotics and/or benzodiazepines and/or placebo in the treatment of acute agitation

Improvement rate (%)Sample size (n included in the analysis)Incidence of EPS side effects (%)
Source/ year/designStudy drugs and dosing (mg/injection or dose) and adm routeAtyp ApsCl ApsPlaceboBenz.Atyp ApsCl ApsPlaceboBenzDefinition of improvementTime for defined improvem entAtyp ApsCl ApsPlaceboBenzConclusionStudy environme nt and duration
*Same study reported in different ways. †The study was conducted at the Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Acute Psychiatry Service; and the article is in press. Observ, observational. Other abbreviations as in table 1.
Currier/ 2001/rater blindedRisperidone 2 mg po plus lorazepam 2 mg po/ haloperidol 5 mg im plus lorazepam 2 mg im62713030% Improvement in PANSS according to baseline60 minutes03No significant difference between the two treatment groupsED/24 hours
Brook/ 2000/ randomZiprasidone 10 mg im/ haloperidol 2.5–10 mg im1378340% Improvement in BPRS according to baseline72 hours021.4Ziprasidone is significantly more effective and better toleratedInpatient/ 72 hours
Jones/ 2001* / DBROlanzapine 10 mg im/ haloperidol 7.5 mg im/ placebo im27Not statedNot stated12211647% Improvement in BPRS positive subscale according to baseline2 hoursNot statedNot statedNot statedOlanzapine and haloperidol are superior to placebo but not significantly differ from each otherInpatient/ 24 hours
Wright/ 2001* / DBROlanzapine 10 mg im/ haloperidol 7.5 mg im/ placebo im73693313112654Improvement of at least 40% in excited component of PANSS2 hours0.85.6Not statedOlanzapine is not inferior to haloperidol in efficacy; has a significantly more rapid onset of actionInpatient/ 24 hours
Meehan/ 2001/DBR.Olanzapine 10 mg im/ lorazepam 2 mg im / placebo im743854985051% Improvement in excited component of PANSS according to baseline2 hoursNo significant difference in EPS side effectsOlanzapine is superior to placebo and lorazepam in reducing agitationNot stated/ 24 hours
Yildiz/ 2003†/ observRisperidone 1–2 mg po ± lorazepam 1 mg po/ haloperidol 2–5 mg im or po ± lorazepam 1–2 mg im or po5741810% Improvement in BPRS according to baseline2 hours00Risperidone is not inferior to haloperidol in efficacyED/2 hours