Table 5
Author, date and countryPatient groupStudy type (level of evidence)OutcomesKey resultsStudy weaknesses
Jun H, et al, 2000, USAMedical students received instruction on use of screw tip IO, or normal bone marrow aspiration needle. They were then tested on simulated IO infusion on ribs and turkey thighs. Two attempts, one after demo, one practised.Randomised experimental study. 42 medical students were randomised as to which needle they used firstFirstt attempt (written instruction and demo)Experimental model was bone only (rather than bone plus flesh)
Time to placementLess for standard (33 s v 54 s p = 0.19)Poor model for “adult” bone
Ease of insertion (10 point VAS)Less for standard (3.2 v 6.3 p<0.001)Difficult to know whether skills will degrade to “unpractised” level with time
Success rate83% for standard v 76% for screw tip p = NSComparison was against “standard bone marrow” needle rather than “standard IO needle”
Second attempt (practised)
Time to placementLess for screw tip (32 s v 27 s p = NS)
Ease of insertion (10 point VAS)Less for standard (2.5 v 5 p<0.001)
Success rate79% for standard v 95% for screw tip. p<0.05