Table 4
Author, date and countryPatient groupStudy type (level of evidence)OutcomesKey resultsStudy weaknesses
Houghton GR, 1973, UK10 patients with paraphimosis aged 8–91 years.Case seriesReduction9 of 10Small numbers
Iced glove placed for five minutesNo controls
Gonzalez FM et al, 2001, SpainThree patients with paraphimosis Application of granulated sugar for one to two hoursCase seriesReductionAll reducedSmall numbers No controls
Kumar V and Javle P, 2001, UK and India45 patients with paraphimosis Multiple puncture in patients with glans engorgement (39)Case seriesReductionAll reduced if no skin changesSmall numbers No controls