Table 1

 Codes and average times for activities performed by emergency department SHOs across all shifts

CategoryDescription of activity% Of coded timeAverage time (h:min:s)95% Confidence intervals (h:min:s)
CLINHistory, examination, assessment22.11:54:131:43:11 to 2:05:15
TREAGiving treatment1.50:07:480:03:14 to 0:12:22
RELSExplanation to relatives/patient4.70:24:090:19:01 to 0:29:17
XRAYExamining films2.20:11:360:09:15 to 0:13:57
TRAUMAAll activities relating to major trauma0.90:04:480:00:00 to 0:10:35
ARRESTAll activities relating to arrest, post arrest1.00:04:550:00:19 to 0:09:31
PROCPerforming procedure5.20:26:420:18:40 to 0:34:44
DISCDiscussion with other specialties2.80:14:290:11:01 to 0:17:57
DISC AEDiscussion with other ED staff5.40:27:440:21:11 to 0:34:17
ADVICEGiving telephone advice0.10:00:320:00:01 to 0:01:03
NOTEWriting notes20.01:43:161:33:49 to 1:52:43
CODCoding notes for data entry to produce GP letter3.50:18:020:15:05 to 0:20:59
LEARNAttending teaching or using reference books4.00:20:540:07:54 to 0:33:54
TEACHTeaching students1.00:05:160:01:02 to 0:09:30
SEEKLooking for equipment/nurses2.10:10:490:08:25 to 0:13:13
PREPPreparing for procedures1.50:07:460:05:00 to 0:10:32
IVSiting IV cannula0.60:03:180:00:50 to 0:05:46
PHLEBTaking blood0.70:03:400:02:00 to 0:05:20
FORMSWriting blood forms, sending samples1.40:07:230:05:24 to 0:09:22
GASTaking blood gas measurements0.50:02:310:00:52 to 0:04:10
READYFinding cubicle, calling and undressing patient3.30:17:050:10:55 to 0:23:15
BLEEPBleeping other doctors—time taken to answer1.90:09:350:06:42 to 0:12:28
TECHBleeping or talking to lab or radiographer2.40:12:370:09:13 to 0:16:01
ANSPHOAnswering the phone (not after bleep)0.30:01:350:00:55 to 0:02:15
EATMeal break4.70:24:090:20:29 to 0:27:49
TEAMaking/drinking tea0.80:03:550:02:05 to 0:05:45
BREAKAny other sort of break3.00:15:290:09:52 to 0:21:06
OTHEROther activity—specified2.50:12:590:04:12 to 0:21:46