Table 1

Differences in c-spine injuries and clearance in adults and children

SCIWORA, spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality.
Epidemiology: c-spine injuryUncommonRare
Mechanism of injury RTA -occupantsRTA -pedestrian
    -motorcyclists    -occupants
Sports/recreational injuriesSports/playground injuries
Penetrating trauma, for example, firearmsFalls from height
Immobilisation Usually easyOften difficult
Clinical assessment Usually simpleDifficult if young
Radiology Familiar and understood.Many normal variants.
Interpretation easier.Ossification changes with age.
Interpretation often difficult.
SCIWORA RareMore common