Table 3

Author, date and countryPatient groupStudy type (level of evidence)OutcomesKey resultsStudy weaknesses
Rice BT et al, 1983, USA8 patients with oseophageal meat impactionCase seriesPassage of the impacted food bolusSuccessfully passed in all casesPatients given barium before the effervescent agent
Tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonateComplicationsNo complications
Campbell N and Sykes P, 1986, UK2 patients with oesophageal food impactionCase reportsPassage of the impacted food bolusSuccessfully passed in both casesPatients given barium before the effervescent agent
CarbexComplicationsNo complications
Mohammed SH and Hegedus V, 1986, Denmark28 patients with impacted oesophageal foreign bodyCase seriesPassage of the impacted food bolus8 resolved by barium alone, 16 resolved by barium and soda 4 not resolvedPatients given barium before the effervescent agent
Retrospective
Carbonated soda waterComplicationsLaryngeal aspiration of barium in 1 patientIn 1 case the foreign body was a coin
Zimmers TE et al, 1988, USAAll episodes (26) of oesophageal food impaction treated with effervescent agents over a 4 year periodCase seriesPassage of the impacted food bolusSuccessfully passed in 17 cases. Unsuccessful in 9 casesPatients given barium before the effervescent agent
Tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonateComplications“Most vomited”Oesophageal tear in 1 patientRetrospective
Karanjia ND and Rees M, 1993, UK13 episodes (8 patients) requiring endoscopy for oesophageal food impactionCase seriesPresence or absence impacted food in oesophagus at endoscopyNo foreign body seen in 8 of 8 patient events receiving prior treatment with Coca-Cola. Foreign body seen in 5 of 5 patient events receiving no prior treatment1 patient given 3 days of Coca-Cola before resolution occurred (after extensive bolus noted at endoscopy)?Selection bias
Coca-Cola or nothingComplicationsNo complications in either group
Spinou E et al, 2003, UK1 patient with oesophageal meat impactionCase reportPassage of the impacted food bolusSuccessfully passedPatient given barium before the effervescent agent
Carbex ( = sodium bicarbonate, simethicone and citric acid)ComplicationsNo complicationsBuscopan given to the patient 24 hours earlier with no success