Table 4

 Symptoms and causes of vertigo

Peripheral vestibular disorderCentral vestibular disorder
    Horizontal with a tortional componant Gaze evoked
    Increase in intensity when gaze to side of fast phase Horizontal, vertical, or tortional
    Nystagmus can be controlled by fixation Nystagmus cannot be controlled by fixation
Normal CNS examinationMay be:
Unsteady gait lean or fall to side opposite the fast phase of nystagmus Cranial nerve signs
 Cerebellar signs
 Motor weakness
 Other CNS disturbance
May be unable to walk without falling