Table 2
Author, date, and countryPatient groupStudy typeOutcomesKey resultsStudy weaknesses
Dewire DM et al, 1992, USA20 patients separated clinically into 3 groups (trauma, inflammation, ischaemia)Diagnostic cohortCorrect diagnosis of torsionCorrectly predicted the need for surgery in 89%Small study numbers Data 12 years old
Schwaibold H et al, 1996, Germany31 patients with painful scrotumsDiagnostic cohortCorrect diagnosis of testicular torsionDefinitive diagnosis in 83%Results from 1988 to 1991
Hendrikx AJ et al, ?1997, Netherlands215 patients with scrotal complaintsDiagnostic cohort38% of torsions missedClinical examination 7.6%; ultrasound 7.6%No direct comparison of clinical v ultrasound
Baker LA et al, 2000, USA130 patients with equivocal clinical suspicion of torsionDiagnostic cohortCorrect diagnosis of torsion by ultrasoundSensitivity 88.9%, specificity 98.8%No direct comparison of clinical v ultrasound
Kravchick S et al, 2001, Israel38 boys with scrotal pain and borderline clinical findingsDiagnostic cohortCorrect diagnosis of torsionUltrasound 88.9%sensitive, 90% specific;clinical assessment 47.4% accuracyNo sensitivity or specificity for clinical assessment
Yuan Z et al, 2001, China17 pre-op acute scrotums, 17 normal scrotumsDiagnostic cohortCorrect diagnosis of testicular torsion48% accuracy at torsion pick-upSmall study numbers No direct comparison of clinical v ultrasound
Stehr M and Boehm R, 2003, Germany132 children with acute scrotumDiagnostic cohort% of torsions reported normal by ultrasound in a group with clinically suspected torsion3.8%Indirect comparison of clinical examination and ultrasound