Table 3

 Conditions causing dizziness

TypeDefinitionCauses
VertigoSensation that the individual or environment is rotatingBenign paroxysmal positional vertigo
Acute labyrinthitis
Vestibular neuronitis
Ménière’s disease
Brainstem or cerebellar disorder
Drug toxicity
PresyncopeSensation that one is about to black outPostural hypotension
Dysrhythmia
Cardiac outflow obstruction
Other causes of syncope (see table 2)
HypoglycaemiaDiabetes mellitus
Alcohol
Insulin secreting tumours
DysequilibriumImbalance when standing or walking without the sensation of movement or impending loss of consciousnessNon-specific symptom—may be from many different causes. Usually in proprioceptive or vestibular systems
Drug effectsSalicylates, tranquillisers, aminoglycosides, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, antimalarials, alcohol
Psycho-physiologicalPanic attacks
Anxiety
Phobias