Table 4

 Variation in emergency department (ED) care for isolated mild traumatic brain injury (TBI): multivariate logistic regression

Dependent variableIndependent variables (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval)
AgeInsurance type (Medicaid/Medicare)Geographical region (northeast)Race (white)Ethnicity (non-Hispanic)
*p⩽0.05.
Mental status exam1.01 (0.99 to 1.02)1.99 (0.9 to 4.2) 3.84 (1.4 to 10.7)* 1.78 (0.6 to 5.2) 0.17 (0.04 to 0.7)*
Pain assessment1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.85 (0.3 to 1.9)0.53 (0.2 to 1.5)0.54 (0.2 to 1.4)0.93 (0.3 to 2.6)
CT scan1.01 (0.9 to 1.03)0.78 (0.3 to 2.2)1.76 (0.6 to 5.0)2.10 (0.8 to 5.6)0.33 (0.1 to .9)
Other x ray1.005 (0.9 to 1.02)0.71 (0.2 to 2.4) 0.15 (0.04 to 0.5)* 3.68 (1.01 to 13.4)* 0.43 (0.1 to 1.4)
Full blood count1.03 (0.9 to 1.06)4.03 (0.7 to 24.5)0.70 (0.1 to 5.5)2.25 (0.2 to 22.7)0.77 (0.1 to 5.8)
Other blood tests 1.05 (1.02 to 1.08)* 1.93 (0.9 to 8.8)1.63 (0.2 to 12.0)2.13 (0.4 to 11.7)1.25 (0.2 to 7.6)
Wound care1.005 (0.9 to 1.03)0.70 (0.1 to 3.5)0.64 (0.2 to 2.7)0.69 (0.2 to 2.5)1.16 (0.3 to 4.4)
Intravenous fluids1.01 (0.9 to 1.03)0.78 (0.1 to 5.4)0.76 (0.14 to 4.1)2.33 (0.3 to 19.8)0.24 (0.05 to 1.1)
Analgesics1.01 (0.9 to 1.03)0.84 (0.3 to 2.8)0.54 (0.2 to 1.9)0.48 (0.2 to 1.1)0.58 (0.2 to 1.9)
Analgesics for pain1.03 (1.0 to 1.1)*1.39 (0.3 to 7.6)3.08 (0.4 to 24.4)0.36 (0.1 to 1.4)1.005 (0.2 to 5.0)
Admitted to hospital1.004 (0.9 to 1.02)2.71 (0.6 to 12.0)1.05 (02 to 4.5)0.97 (0.2 to 3.7)0.97 (0.2 to 5.0)
Transferred to other facility1.01 (0.9 to 1.1)0.27 (0.01 to 12.5)1.09 (0.03 to 42.6) 0.05 (0.003 to 0.7)* Too few patients
Discharged without follow up1.01 (0.9 to 1.09)0.60 (0.1 to 2.9)0.61 (0.1 to 4.0)1.60 (0.2 to 10.4)Too few patients
Discharged with recommendation to return to ED as needed0.99 (0.9 to 1.01)1.42 (0.5 to 3.8)1.36 (0.4 to 4.0)1.92 (0.5 to 6.9)1.05 (0.4 to 2.9)
Discharged with recommendation to follow up with referring doctor1.001 (0.9 to 1.03)0.51 (0.14 to 1.8)0.70 (0.2 to 2.5)1.27 (0.4 to 3.8)0.56 (0.1 to 2.1)
Discharged with recommendation to follow up with other doctor or clinic0.99 (0.9 to 1.02)0.53 (0.2 to 1.4)0.69 (0.2 to 2.4)0.63 (0.2 to 1.7)1.11 (0.4 to 3.2)