Table 3 Pain scores during PSA with N2O by primary procedure (n  =  124*)
ProceduresPain score during procedure*
n0 (%)1–49 (%)50–69 (%)⩾70 (%)
Laceration repair3719 (51.3)9 (24.3)3 (8.1)6 (16.2)
Fracture reduction3110 (32.6)7 (22.6)5 (16.1)9 (29.0)
Intravenous line insertion158 (53.3)5 (33.3)1 (6.7)1 (6.7)
Application of plaster, backslab157 (46.7)3 (20)2 (13.3)3 (20)
Joint dislocation reduction81 (12.5)5 (62.5)2 (25)
Foreign body removal71 (14.3)2 (28.5)2 (28.5)2 (28.5)
Removal of plaster/suture31 (33.3)1 (33.3)1 (33.3)
Abscess drainage, incision31 (33.3)2 (66.7)
Wound debridement11 (100)
Arthrocentesis11 (100)
Other31 (33.3)1 (53.3)1 (33.3)
Total12448 (38.7)34 (27.4)16 (12.9)26 (21)
  • *Patient pain score if 5 years of age or older (n  =  93) and parent pain score if less than 5 years of age (n  =  31).

  • N2O, nitrous oxide; PSA, procedural sedation and analgesia.