Table 2

Sensitivity and specificity of derivation and validation studies

Authors of derivation studyAuthors of validation studiesSensitivity (95% CI)Specificity (95% CI)LR negative*
Goldman et al26100 (92 to 100)17 (14 to 21)<0.01
Goldman et al2694 (86 to 98)66 (61 to 71)0.09
Poretsky et al3281 (71 to 89)53 (42 to 64)0.4
Grijseels et al1777 (73 to 81)38 (34 to 42)0.6
Goldman et al3198 (95 to 99)66 (63 to 69)0.03
Goldman et al3188 (85 to 90)76 (75 to 77)0.2
Grijseels et al1774 (69 to 78)40 (36 to 45)0.7
Selker et al898 (97 to 98)32 (30 to 34)0.06
Selker et al899 (98 to 99.4)34 (31 to 36)0.02
Seyal et al998 (94 to 99)4 (1 to 13)0.4
Miller et al10 (USA)95 (94 to 97)18 (17 to 19)0.3
Miller et al10 (Singapore)98 (96 to 99)8 (7 to 9)0.3
Mitchell et al11100 (92 to 100)6 (5 to 8)<0.01
Kellett1284 (78 to 88)84 (80 to 88)0.2
Pozen et al686 (74 to 93)91 (87 to 94)0.2
Grijseels et al1756 (51 to 61)61 (57 to 65)0.7
Pozen et al2494 (92 to 96)78 (75 to 81)0.07
Grijseels et al1743 (38 to 48)78 (74 to 81)0.9
Green and Smith3383 (62 to 94)38 (28 to 49)0.3
Tierny et al2581 (68 to 89)86 (82 to 89)0.2
Grijseels et al1755 (50 to 60)62 (58 to 66)0.7
Kennedy et al2181 (73 to 86)85 (81 to 88)0.2
Kennedy et al2192 (88 to 95)80 (76 to 84)0.1
Kennedy et al2193 (91 to 95)93 (90 to 95)0.08
Kennedy et al21, hospital 240 (33 to 48)87 (83 to 90)0.7
Hospital 390 (87 to 93)90 (84 to 94)0.11
Hospital 489 (83 to 94)87 (68 to 96)0.1
Grijseels et al17A-ROC 0.72
Grijseels et al3491 (88 to 94)37 (33 to 41)0.2
Dilger et al2895 (86 to 99)77 (54 to 91)0.06
Dilger et al2891 (79 to 97)86 (76 to 92)0.10
  • ↵* LR negative=(1–sensitivity)/specificity. A-ROC, area under the receiver operating curve.