Table 1

Factors associated with repeated deliberate self-harm (DSH) in 1524 patients attending the emergency department due to DSH

Number of Individuals% Repeated self-harmUnadjustedAdjusted*
HR (95% CI)p ValueHR (95% CI)p Value
Sociodemographic factors
Gender0.01<0.01
 Female99034.11.3 (1.1 to 1.6)1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)
 Male53427.31.0
Age at index0.1
 18–2435836.61.3 (1.0 to 1.8)
 25–3433928.01.0 (0.7 to 1.3)
 35–4430334.71.2 (0.9 to 1.6)
 45–5424531.01.1 (0.8 to 1.5)
 >5527927.61.0
Marital status0.1
 Married/partner27229.41.0
 Divorced30928.21.0 (0.7 to 1.3)
 Widowed7225.01.0 (0.6 to 1.6)
 Single87134.31.2 (1.0 to 1.6)
Housing status0.2
 Living with family37028.61.0
 Single with children28131.31.1 (0.9 to 1.5)
 Living alone85333.11.2 (1.0 to 1.5)
Parent with young child/ren<0.01<0.01
 No137632.91.7 (1.2 to 2.5)1.7 (1.2 to 2.4)
 Yes14820.91.0
Unemployed0.1
 No139932.31.0
 Yes12525.60.7 (0.5 to 1.0)
Disability pension<0.010.8
 No115229.21.0
 Yes37239.81.5 (1.2 to 1.8)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)
Education level0.5
 <9 years46834.41.1 (0.9 to 1.5)
 11–12 years65232.11.0 (0.8 to 1.3)
 >12 years27131.41.0
Treatment and previous self-harm
Current psychiatric treatment<0.01<0.01
 No83324.41.0
 Yes, open care65539.41.7 (1.4 to 2.1)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)
 Yes, admitted3663.93.7 (2.4 to 5.7)2.6 (1.7 to 4.2)
Previous psychiatric treatment0.1
 No98430.51.0
 Yes, <1 year16439.01.4 (1.1 to 1.8)
 Yes, >1year17431.01.1 (0.8 to 1.4)
 Yes, no time point20232.71.1 (0.8 to 1.4)
Previous self-harm<0.01<0.01
 No114226.61.0
 Yes38247.12.0 (1.6 to 2.4)1.6 (1.3 to 1.9)
Previous abuse0.1
 No146531.41.0
 Yes5940.71.4 (0.9 to 2.1)
Antidepressant treatment<0.010.01
 No84426.91.0
 Yes68037.81.5 (1.3 to 1.8)1.3 (1.1 to 1.6)
Index episode, method of self-harm
Self-injury (cutting)0.010.02
 No134430.71.0
 Yes18040.01.4 (1.1 to 1.8)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)
Self-poisoning0.1
 No21536.31.0
 Yes130931.00.8 (0.6 to 1.0)
Self-poisoning/ benzodiazepines0.6
 No93531.41.0
 Yes58932.31.1 (0.9 to 1.3)
Self-poisoning/propiomazin0.3
 No13201.0
 Yes2041.1(0.9 to 1.5)
Self-poisoning/paracetamol0.7
 No131931.51.0
 Yes20533.21.0 (0.8 to 1.3)
Self-poisoning/antidepressants0.3
 No130631.21.0
 Yes21835.31.1 (0.9 to 1.4)
Self-poisoning/opiates0.2
 No144031.41.0
 Yes8438.11.3 (0.9 to 1.8)
Other method of self-harm0.2
 No146131.61.0
 Yes6336.51.3 (0.8 to 2.0)
Self-injury operated<0.01<0.01
 No150331.41.0
 Yes2157.12.9 (1.6 to 5.1)3.2 (1.7 to 5.8)
Precipitants of index episode and circumstances of index episode
Precipitant event<0.010.1
 No72335.31.0
 Relations43324.50.6 (0.5 to 0.8)0.8 (0.6 to 1.0)
 Legal8823.90.6 (0.4 to 1.0)0.7 (0.4 to 1.1)
 Physical/psychological20237.61.1 (0.9 to 1.4)1.1 (0.9 to 1.5)
 Miscarriage6833.80.9 (0.6 to 1.4)1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)
 Abuse1030.00.8 (0.3 to 2.6)0.6 (0.2 to 1.9)
Alcohol influence at self-harm0.7
 No89831.41.0
 Yes62632.31.0 (0.8 to 1.2)
Avoid discovery0.8
 No142131.71.0
 Yes10333.01.1 (0.7 to 1.5)
Planned self-harm0.2
 No129731.21.0
 Yes22734.81.2 (0.9 to 1.5)
Suicide intention0.6
 No84131.41.0
 Yes68332.21.1 (0.9 to 1.3)
Suicide note0.3
 No140832.21.0
 Yes11626.70.8 (0.6 to 1.2)
Mental and behavioural disorders at index episode (ICD-10)
F01-09 Organic mental disorders0.8
 No149331.91.0
 Yes3125.80.9 (0.5 to 1.9)
F10-19 Substance use disorders<0.01<0.01
 No125730.41.0
 Yes26738.21.4 (1.1 to 1.7)1.5 (1.2 to 1.9)
F20-29 Disorders; schizophrenial0.1
 No144031.31.0
 Yes8439.31.4 (1.0 to 1.9)
F30-39 Affective disorders0.3
 No108633.11.0
 Yes43828.50.9 (0.7 to 1.1)
F40-49 Neurotic disorders<0.010.7
 No125730.41.0
 No125833.41.0
 Yes26624.10.6 (0.5 to 0.8)0.9 (0.7 to 1.3)
F60-69 Disorders; adult personality<0.01<0.01
 No112127.71.0
 Yes40342.91.7 (1.4 to 2.0)1.4 (1.1 to 1.7)
Discharge after index episode
Compulsory admission<0.010.9
 No136530.71.0
 Yes15940.91.4 (1.1 to 1.9)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)
Discharged to<0.010.08
 Not admitted51831.11.0
 Home57126.80.8 (0.7 to 1.0)0.9 (0.7 to 1.2)
 Psychiatric clinic34639.91.4 (1.1 to 1.7)1.3 (1.0 to 1.7)
 Other clinic6536.91.4 (0.9 to 2.2)1.3 (0.8 to 2.0)
 Other2433.31.1 (0.6 to 2.3)0.9 (0.4 to 1.8)
  • * Adjusted for the following significant variables in the univariable analysis; Gender, Parent with young child/ren, Disability pension, Current psychiatric treatment, Previous self-harm, Antidepressant treatment, Self-injury (cutting), Self-injury operated, Precipitant event, F10-19 Substance use disorders, F40-49 Neurotic disorders, F60-69 Adult personality disorders, Compulsory admission, Discharge to. Analysis is based on 1524 patients.

  • Total number of patients does not always add up to 1524 for all factors owing to partly missing data.