Table 1

Studies of the effectiveness of the human dive reflex in adult subjects presenting with supraventricular tachycardia

AuthorSample sizeAge range (years)Study type‘Cold’ toolTemperature (°C)Apnoea employedDuration (s)Reversion successHistory of previous SVTSubject rhythmHDR performance position
Wildenthal et al2722–66Prospective interventional, non-randomisedCold water2Breath holding during facial immersion15–3585.7Yes (4), No (3)PATSitting
Wayne11010–53Prospective interventional, non-randomisedCold water10Breath holding during facial immersion15–3890Not statedPATProne
Mehta et al133516–69Prospective interventional, non-randomisedWater5–7Breath holding during facial immersion3517YesPSVTSitting
Wen et al913314–72Prospective interventional, non-randomisedIce and water in plastic bagNot statedNot stated205YesPSVTSupine
  • HDR, human dive reflex; PAT, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia; PSVT, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia; SVT, supraventricular tachycardia.