Table 3

Correlates of poor psychological outcomes

Authors (date) and countryMeasuresSignificant correlates of poor psychological outcomes
Aikens et al (1999) USA24BDINone reported
Demiryoguran et al (2006) Turkey25HADS-AIn NCCP patients: female gender (p=0.037), associated symptoms (p=0.004), previous referral with the same disease (p<0.001), family history of psychiatric illness (p=0.011) were associated with an anxiety score of ≥10
Eken et al (2010) Turkey26HADSAll chest pain patients: frequency of anxiety and depression higher in diabetes patients (p=0.027). Women had a higher frequency of anxiety and depression (p=0.006)
Eslick and Talley (2008) Australia27
  • HADS

  • SF-36

All chest pain patients: increased chest pain severity correlated with increased depression (p=0.03) and with decreased mental health (p<0.001) and vitality (p<0.001) of QoL. Increased chest pain frequency correlated with decreased general health of QoL (p<0.001). In the regression model, pain severity was associated with lower QoL mental health score (p<0.001) and frequency with lower QoL general health scores (p<0.001)
Fagring et al (2008)20, Jerlock et al (2008)5 Sweden
  • Zung depression scale

  • Trait anxiety inventory

  • SF-36

None reported
Kuijpers et al (2003) The Netherlands22HADSIn comparison with a subset of participants who did not score above the cut-off (N=78, not clear how these were identified), those who scored above the cut-off were significantly younger (p=0.001), less likely to have received a diagnosis of atypical thoracic diseases and more likely to have received a hyperventilation diagnosis (p=0.03), and more likely to have received a panic disorder diagnosis (p=0.04)
Mayou and Thompson (2002) UK28
  • HADS

  • SF-36

None reported
Shahid et al (2004) Pakistan29Aga Kahn University anxiety and depression scaleNone reported
Soares-Filho et al (2009) Brazil30HADSNone reported
Srinivasan and Joseph (2004) India23HADSAmong those with a psychiatric disorder, NCCP patients had higher anxiety and depression scores than CCP patients (p<0.001)
  • BDI, Beck depression inventory; CCP, cardiac chest pain; HADS, hospital anxiety and depression scale; NCCP, non-cardiac chest pain; QoL, quality of life; SF-36, short form 36.