Table 2

Studies of the effectiveness of the human dive reflex in paediatric subjects presenting with supraventricular tachycardia

AuthorSample sizeAge rangeStudy type‘Cold’ toolTemperature (°C)Apnoea method employedDuration (s)Reversion success (%)History of previous SVTRhythmHDR performance position
Bisset et al6101 day–15 yearsProspective interventional, non-randomisedIce and water in plastic bagNot statedCovered nose and mouth1–15100Yes (5), No (5)PSVTSupine
Sreeram et al516Birth-1 yearRetrospective case reviewIced waterNot statedApnoea consequent of complete facial immersion589.8Not statedPATNot stated
Whitman et al318 yearsCase studyIce waterNot statedBreath holding during facial immersion‘Instantaneous’100YesPSVTNot stated
Whitman et al2027 and 10 days (2 cases)Case seriesIce and waterNot statedBreath holding during facial immersion6 and 4–5100Case 1: not stated, Case 2: yesPSVT (both cases)Not stated (both cases)
Craig et al21114 daysCase studyIce to faceNot statedNot statedNot stated100YesPSVTNot stated
Sperandeo et al231014 days–5 monthsProspective interventional, non-randomisedIced water4–5Breath holding during facial immersion6–7100YesPSVTNot stated
  • HDR, human dive reflex; PAT, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia; PSVT, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia; SVT, supraventricular tachycardia.