Table 4

Accuracy of the clinical decision rules in the derivation groups

SensitivitySpecificityNegative predictive valuePositive predictive value
Need for neurological intervention
 CATCH24/24, 100% (86.2 to 100)2698/3842, 70.2% (68.8 to 71.6)2698/2698, 100%*24/1168, 2.1%*
Clinically significant intracranial injury
 CHALICE277/281, 98.6% (96.4 to 99.6)19 558/22 491, 86.9% (86.5 to 87.4)19 558/19 562, 99.9% (99.9 to 100)277/3210, 8.63% (7.68 to 9.65)
Clinically significant intracranial injury in patients with GCS 13–15
 CHALICE164/168, 97.6% (94.0 to 99.4)19 558/22 411, 87.3% (86.8 to 87.7)19 558/19 562, 99.9 (99.9 to 100)164/3017, 5.4% (4.7 to 6.3)
Clinically important brain injury
 PECARN <2 years72/73, 98.6% (92.6 to 99.97)4528/8429, 53.7% (52.6 to 54.8)4528/4529, 99.9% (99.88 to 99.999)72/3973, 1.8% (1.4 to 2.3)
 PECARN ≥2 years208/215, 96.7% (93.4 to 98.7)14 656/25 068, 58.5% (57.9 to 59.1)14 656/14 663, 99.95% (99.9 to 99.98)208/10 620, 2.0% (1.7 to 2.2)
CT visible brain injury
 CATCH156/159, 98.1% (94.6 to 99.4)1856/3707, 50.1% (48.5 to 51.7)1856/1859, 99.8%*156/2007, 7.8%*
 CHALICE277/281, 98.6% (96.4 to 99.6)Not possible to calculate as reported by composite outcome, not by cranial CT
 PECARN <2 yearsNot possible to calculate as derivation group reported with ciTBI only, not cranial CT data. See PECARN validation table for details
 PECARN ≥2 years
  • Reported sensitivity and specificity are used where reported in papers, and calculated where not reported (*signifies values calculated from reported data). For PECARN sensitivity and specificity, only the derivation population characteristics are used. Values in parentheses are 95% CIs.

  • When reporting sensitivity and specificity of the primary outcome ‘need for neurological intervention’, only the four high risk predictor variables are used.

  • Reported using all seven predictor variables.

  • CATCH, Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury; CHALICE, Children's Head Injury Algorithm for the Prediction of Important Clinical Events; ciTBI, clinically important traumatic brain injury; GCS, Glasgow coma score; PECARN, Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network.