Table 2

Comparison of patient selection criteria in the derivation of the clinical decision rules

SettingDemographicInclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
CATCH10 tertiary paediatric teaching institution EDs in CanadaUnder 17 yAll of the following:
  • Blunt trauma to the head resulting in witnessed LOC/disorientation, definite amnesia, persistent vomiting (2 or more distinct episodes of vomiting 15 min apart), persistent irritability in the ED (in children <2 y)

  • Initial GCS in ED ≥13 as determined by treating physician

  • Injury within the past 24 h

Any of:
  • Obvious penetrating skull injury

  • Obvious depressed fracture

  • Acute focal neurological deficit

  • Chronic generalised developmental delay

  • HI secondary to suspected child abuse

  • Returning for reassessment of previously treated HI

  • Patients who were pregnant

CHALICE10 EDs in NW England
  • 3 children's hospitals

  • 3 teaching hospitals

  • 4 district general hospitals

Under 16 yAny history or signs of injury to the headRefusal to consent
PECARN25 EDs in different hospital types, part of a paediatric research network in the USAUnder 18 yPresent within 24 h of HIAny of:
  • Trivial mechanism (defined by ground level fall, walking or running into stationary object, no signs or symptoms of head trauma except scalp abrasions and lacerations)

  • Penetrating trauma

  • Known brain tumour

  • Pre-existing neurological disorder complicating assessment

  • Neuroimaging at another hospital before transfer

  • Patient with ventricular shunt*

  • Patient with bleeding disorder*

  • GCS <14*

  • * Enrolled but being analysed separately, not used in clinical decision rule derivation or validation.

  • CATCH, Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury; CHALICE, Children's Head Injury Algorithm for the Prediction of Important Clinical Events; ED, emergency department; GCS, Glasgow Coma Score; HI, head injury; LOC, loss of consciousness; PECARN, Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network.