TableĀ 2

Items on screening checklists used in children visiting Dutch emergency departments (EDs): results of 77 hospitals

Item on checklistQuestion related to:For all children presenting at the ED: number (%) of hospitalsOnly for children presenting at the ED with an injury: number (%) of hospitalsOnly when clinical suspicion of child maltreatment or positive item on previous checklist: number (%) of hospitals
History and examination do not match [S, E, SR]Unclear history57 (74)9 (12)4 (5)
Inappropriate parental actions after medical problem [S]Parental behaviour43 (56)7 (9)12 (16)
Unexplained injuries [S, SR, B]Characteristics of an injury28 (36)7 (9)27 (35)
Clinical suspicion of abuse [S, E]34 (44)6 (8)17 (22)
Witness/parents do not accompany child [S]Parental behaviour23 (30)5 (7)23 (30)
Injury does not match given time period [S]Unclear history
Characteristics of an injury
23 (30)7 (9)20 (26)
Unusual anatomical location for injury [S]Characteristics of an injury29 (38)6 (8)13 (17)
Perpetrator does not accompany child [S]17 (22)5 (7)25 (33)
Unusual appearance of injury [S]Characteristics of an injury21 (27)5 (7)20 (26)
Inconsistent history [E, SR, B]Unclear history37 (48)5 (7)3 (4)
Delay in attendance [E, SR, B]Parental behaviour32 (42)3 (4)1 (1)
Unusual parent-child interaction [E, SR, B]Parental behaviour28 (36)3 (4)2 (3)
Clinical suspicion of neglect [S]14 (18)0 (0)18 (23)
Unusual behaviour of child/parents [E, SR, B]Parental behaviour25 (33)2 (3)1 (1)
Frequent prior attendance18 (23)1 (1)3 (4)
History is inconsistent with developmental level of child [E, SR]Unclear history18 (23)3 (4)1 (1)
Child maltreatment (suspicion) in history [SR]14 (18)3 (4)3 (4)
History given by child does not match history given by parentsUnclear history12 (16)3 (4)3 (4)
Head injury or fracture in child <1 yearCharacteristics of an injury8 (10)0 (0)0 (0)
Unusual contact parents/child with hospital staffParental behaviour6 (8)1 (1)1 (1)
Other risk factors for child maltreatment2 (3)0 (0)2 (3)
Other child is blamed for medical problem2 (3)2 (3)0 (0)
Unexplained symptoms2 (3)1 (1)0 (0)
Language barrier0 (0)0 (0)2 (3)
Details in family situation1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
Disagreement between nursing and medical staff on suspected child maltreatment1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
Inappropriate parental intervention to prevent medical problemParental behaviour1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
Insufficient involvement of parents with child's healthParental behaviour1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
  • B, Benger flow chart; E, ESCAPE Form; S, SPUTOVAMO checklist; SR, SPUTOVAMO-R checklist.